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Before you borrow

Most people will need to borrow money at some stage in their lives. Sometimes borrowing money can seem easy – you can get the item first then pay for it later. Before you borrow money, there are some things to think about to make sure you have no regrets and will be able to keep up the repayments.  

This page explains how to borrow thoughtfully and the different ways to borrow money.  

 

Questions to ask yourself before you borrow 

Here are some questions to ask yourself before taking out a loan or using credit.  

Is it something I really need right now? 

Ask yourself honestly if it’s something you really need right now or if you can save up and buy it without borrowing later. Think about how borrowing might affect your longer-term financial situation. Read more below about other ways to pay for what you want instead of borrowing. 

Is it a good or bad debt? 

A good debt describes borrowing that: 

  • Is for something that is worth going into debt for 
  • Can help improve your overall situation over time 
  • You have a clear realistic plan for paying it back 

Examples: 

  • loan to renovate your home may increase your home’s value or avoid expensive repairs
  • A student loan may help you to get a job with a higher income 

bad debt describes borrowing that: 

  • You use to buy things you consume or that have short-term value 
  • Is not affordable 

Examples: 

  • Borrowing to pay for a holiday – you will be repaying the loan long after you enjoy your holiday 
  • Borrowing to pay everyday bills – if you’re struggling to get to the end of the week or month, borrowing more will only make the problem worse 
  • Borrowing to pay other unaffordable debts (we offer advice on tackling debt) 
Can I afford to borrow? 

Before applying for a loan or credit, use our My Budget toolto see: 

  • How much you will be able to pay back each month 
  • If repayments will make it harder to cover bills like rent or food 
  • If it will stop you from saving or having money for emergencies 
  • If you would still be able to meet repayment if interest rates rise 
  • If you would still be able to pay if your income reduces 

Other options instead of borrowing 

Sometimes you might buy things on impulse and borrow to pay for it without thinking. First, try to think about other ways of getting the item without borrowing, for example, buying it second-hand.

If you want to buy something that’s not urgent, think seriously about saving up and buying it later instead of getting into debt. The benefits are: 

  • It will usually cost you less as you won’t have to pay any interest 
  • The cost may have been reduced (for example, in a sale) by the time you save up for the item  

You can work out a realistic savings plan. First, work out how much you can afford to save using the My Budget toolHaving a clear picture of your expenses and spending habits can help you see where you could cut back and save. 

The easiest way to save is to set up a regular payment from your current account into a savings account. You automatically add to your savings each month and won’t be tempted to skip payments or dip into it.  

Even if you don’t save the full amount, by saving something, the amount of credit you need is less and the cost of credit is reduced. Use these money saving tips from the CCPC, to find ways to cut your spending. It might surprise you how little things add up. 

Your options when borrowing 

There are many types of loans and credit with different fees, charges and interest rates. Before you borrow, it’s important to understand how they work. Here we cover the most common types of credit and loans. 

Type of credit/loan 

Description 

Learn more from CCPC 

Personal loan 

A loan from your bank or credit union 

Repaid in instalments over a fixed  period  

Can have a fixed or variable rate of  interest 

Variable rate  the amount you repay can change if interest rates  change 

Fixed rate  the interest rate and the  amount you repay do not  change 

Personal loans 

 

Personal loans comparison 

 

Student loans comparison 

 

Overdraft 

Your bank may allow you to arrange an overdraft  

You can spend more than what is  actually in your account, up to an  agreed amount 

You pay interest on the amount you  owe 

Typically, the interest rate on  overdrafts is variable and is higher  than  the rate charged on personal  loans – ranging from  about 11% to  about 15% 

If you spend more than the agreed  amount of your overdraft, your bank  may charge you extra interest (surcharge interest) and fees 

If you have an overdue overdraft for a long time, a bank can use your  income to settle the overdraft and then withdraw it. You may then have  no easy access to credit and little money remaining

Overdrafts 

Credit card 

A form of credit that gives you  an agreed amount of money (a credit  limit) which you can borrow as you  need and repay when it suits you 

You must make a minimum  payment every month 

If you pay off your balance or your  borrowing in full each month, you pay   no interest 

Typically, the interest rate is high,  which makes it an expensive way to  borrow money 

You may have to pay compound  interest. Compound  interest is when  interest gets added to the principal  amount borrowed, and then the  interest rate applies to the new (larger) principal. It’s essentially  interest  on interest, which can lead  to big increases over time

Credit cards 

 

Credit card comparison 

 

Student credit card comparison 

Moneylender loan 

Typically, their interest rate is VERY  high 

Very often, they will call  to your door  to collect the money you owe. It is your right to be given a repayment  book showing uptodate payments 

They might also sell goods on credit 

They must be licensed by the Central  Bank of Ireland – never use an illegal moneylender 

Moneylenders’ loans 

Mortgage 

A loan to buy property, for example a home or or land. It is secured  against the property,  and  borrowed over a long period of  time (generally from 5 to 35 years) 

You are at risk of losing your home or property if you miss repayments 

Mortgages 

 

Mortgages comparison 

Hire purchase

or 

Personal Contract Plan (PCP) 

Credit often used to buy cars,  televisions, laptops and furniture 

With hire purchase, you do not own  the item until you have paid back the  credit in full 

The goods can be repossessed  without a court order if less than        33% has been paid 

Personal Contract Plan (PCP) 

Hire purchase 

‘It Makes Sense’ loan 

A loan of between €100 and €2,000  offered by some credit unions 

You can apply if you get a social  welfare payment and can’t get a loan  from a bank or other lender 

It Makes Sense – Participating Credit Unions 

 

It Makes Sense Scheme 

Borrowing from friends or family 

Can be a quick way to get an interest – free loan or to help in an  emergency, so you don’t have to  borrow from high-interest lender  

It’s a good idea to agree on repayment terms before taking any money 

If you don’t pay your loan back on  time, it may put a strain on your  relationship and affect other family  members 

 

How to work out the cost of borrowing 

When you’re borrowing money, it’s important to understand how much the different options cost. You also need to know how the cost of borrowing can change depending on how long you want to borrow for (the term of the loan).

You can use this loan calculator from the CCPC to work out the monthly repayments and cost of credit for loans. 

The Annual Percentage Rate (APR) is a calculation of the overall cost of your loan as a percentage of the total loan amount. You can use the APR to compare different loans, as long as you compare them over the same term, for example 5-year loans.

The real cost of borrowing is called the cost of credit. This is the difference between the amount you borrow and the total you will repay by the end of the loan, including interest. The longer the term of your loan, the higher the cost of credit. The CCPC has more information about calculating the cost of credit.

How being in debt affects your credit rating

Lenders use credit reports to assess your loan application before making a decision. They may also consider your income and outgoings, such as rent and utilities as well as your past payment history. Different lenders have different criteria for approving loans. 

In Ireland, there are 2 databases that collect information on personal loans. These are:  

By law, banks, credit unions and other lenders must send information on loans to the  Central Credit RegisterThey must also consult the Register before approving a loan. 

Lenders may choose to send information about borrowers to databases operated by a credit reference agency, such as the Irish Credit Bureau (ICB). The Central Credit Register and the ICB do not decide whether or not you get a loan.  

You can also request your own credit report and arrange to correct any errors or add a short statement.  Read more about your credit history. 

Refused a loan 

If a lender has declined your loan application, it is likely because they don’t believe it would be responsible to provide you with credit that you may not be able to repay  

If you are turned down for a loan and have never had problems repaying your loans in the past, you may want to check your credit history in case there is an error.  

Payment problems 

If you’re having trouble repaying a loan, speak to your lender. If something unexpected happens that affects your ability to pay your loan, you may be able to make an alternative plan to repay. 

Checklist before you borrow

  • What it’s going to cost you overall (see ‘How to work out the cost of credit’)
  • What the repayment amounts will be each week or month 
  • What interest or fees you will have to pay 
  • What will happen if you miss a repayment or you can’t pay the loan back 
  • How long it will take to pay off the loan 

Use the following tips when applying for a loan

Do your research and shop around 

You have a choice, so shop around to make sure you are borrowing as cheaply as possible.  For example, if you are buying a car, you don’t have to take out a loan provided by the garage. It might not be the best option. Use the CCPC’s cost comparison tools to shop around and compare options. 

Make sure the loan is right for you 

It’s important that your loan is affordable and suitable for your circumstances. 

Your lender will need to be satisfied that you can pay back your loan without facing substantial hardship and that the loan is suitable for you. 

Read the key information provided by the lender 

Your lender must give you key information about your loan including interest rates and fees before you sign a contract. Make sure you read this information and understand all the terms and conditions associated with borrowing the money. Don’t sign a contract if you still have questions. Ask your lender about anything you don’t understand.

Try saving the repayment amount for a while 

To see if you can stick to a credit agreement, try it for a while before borrowing. This will have the double advantage of showing you if you can manage your payment over time and you will have saved something and need to borrow less.

Get more help from MABS 

Before you borrow, it might be worth getting free expert money advice from MABS to get a clear picture of your finances.  

You can get general money advice. MABS can help by supporting you to: 

  • Draw up a money management plan 
  • Check you’ve applied for all the benefits and entitlements you’re due 
  • Make a payment plan for your bills  
  • Make a tackling debt plan for any other debts 
  • Manage any changes in your circumstances 

MABS does not provide advice on financial products or legal advice. If you’re struggling to manage your money, or you feel like borrowing more to tackle debt is the only solution, help is available. Contact MABS we can help you to see the problem clearly and to put together a plan. 

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